Effects of a Multi-Faceted Education Program on Enrollment, Learning and Gender Equity: Evidence from India4 min read
No AccessEducationNov 2021
The Sustainable Development Goals set a triple educational objective: improve access to, quality of, and gender equity in education. This paper documents the effectiveness of a multifaceted educational program, pursuing these three objectives simultaneously. Using an experiment in 229 schools in rural Rajasthan (India), the study measures the effects of the program on students’ school participation and academic performance over two years, while also examining heterogeneous impacts across gender and initial learning ability. It finds that the program increased student enrollment, with the largest effects among girls (7.2 percent in the first year, 12.8 percent in the second). There were large learning gains of 0.329 standard deviations (SDs) in the first year and 0.206 SDs at the end of the second year. The learning component of the intervention targeted both boys and girls — boys and girls benefited equally from the program in terms of test score gains.
- 2007. “Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (3): 1235–64. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2016. “Mainstreaming an Effective Intervention: Evidence from Randomized Evaluations of ‘Teaching at the Right Level’ in India.” Working Paper 22746. National Bureau of Economic Research. Cambridge, MA, USA. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2010. “Pitfalls of Participatory Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Education in India.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2 (1): 1–30. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2019. “Some Children Left Behind: Distributional Impacts of Improving Literacy Teaching in Uganda.” Unpublished manuscript. Google Scholar.
- 2005. “The Central Role of Noise in Evaluating Interventions That Use Test Scores to Rank Schools.” American Economic Review 95 (4): 1237–58. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2017. “Raising the Floor on Learning Levels: Equitable Improvement Starts with the Tail.” RISE Insight Note August 2017. Oxford: RISE. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2016. “Education in Developing Countries: What Policies and Programmes affect Learning and Time in School?” Report for the Expert Group for Aid Studies. No. 2016: 02. Stockholm: Elanders Sverige AB. Google Scholar.
- 2011. “Peer Effects, Teacher Incentives, and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya.” American Economic Review 101: 1739–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 1998. “Is There a Quantity–Quality Trade-Off as Pupil–Teacher Ratios Increase?” International Journal of Educational Development 18 (5): 367–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2019. “What We Learn about Girls’ Education from Interventions That Do Not Focus on Girls.” Working Paper 513. Center for Global Development. Washington, DC, USA. LinkGoogle Scholar.
- 2012. “Empowering Parents to Improve Education: Evidence from Rural Mexico.” Journal of Development Economics 99 (1): 68–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
J-PAL Policy Bulletin. 2017. “Roll Call: Getting
Children into School.” Google Scholar
- 2017. “More Schooling or More Learning? Evidence from Learning Profiles from the Financial Inclusion Insights Data.” World Bank Development Report Background Paper. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Google Scholar.
- 2013. “The Effects of “Girl-Friendly” Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 5 (3): 41–62. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2013. “The Support to Rural India’s Public Education System (STRIPES) Trial: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of Supplementary Teaching, Learning Material and Material Support.” PloS one 8 (7): e65775. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2008. “How to Teach English in India: Testing the Relative Productivity of Instruction Methods with Pratham English Language Education Program.” Unpublished, Columbia University, New York, USA. Google Scholar.
- 2018. “Inputs, Incentives, and Complementarities in Education: Experimental Evidence from Tanzania.” Working Paper 24876. National Bureau of Economic Research. Cambridge, MA, USA. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2015. “Improving Learning in Primary Schools of Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments.” Review of Educational Research 85 (3): 1–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
- 2019. “Disrupting Education? Experimental Evidence on Technology-Aided Instruction in India.” American Economic Review 109 (4): 1426–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
NEMO Study Group. 2007. “Effect of a 12-mo Micronutrient Intervention on Learning and Memory in Well-Nourished and Marginally Nourished School-Aged Children: 2 Parallel, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Studies in Australia and Indonesia.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86: 1082–93. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
- 2008. “Information, Role Models, and Perceived Returns to Education: Experimental Evidence from Madagascar.” Unpublished manuscript, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. Google Scholar.
- 2014. “Improving Educational Quality Through Enhancing Community Participation: Results From a Randomized Field Experiment in Indonesia.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 6 (2): 105–126. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
Pratham Organization. 2012. Annual Status of Education Report. Mumbai: Pratham Resource Center. Google Scholar
- 2014. “School-Based Management Effects: Resources or Governance Change? Evidence from Mexico.” Economics of Education Review 39: 97–109. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
- 2002. “Do Volunteers in Schools Help Children Learn to Read? A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials.” Educational Studies 28 (4): 433–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar.
UNICEF. 2012. Child Marriage in India: An Analysis of Available Data. New Delhi. Google Scholar United Nations. 2015. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York. Google Sc
World Bank. 2012. World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. Washington, DC. CrossrefGoogle Scholar